STATUS OF AGRICULTURE IN ODISHA
 
Introduction
Odisha is an agrarian state with Agriculture and Animal Husbandry sector contributing 21.11% to Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) in 2007-08 (Q) at 1999-2000 prices and providing employment directly or indirectly to 70% of total work force as per 2001 Census. The share of Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) from Agriculture and Animal Husbandry during 2007-08(Q) at constant price (1999-2000) is 19.51%. Evidently, Agriculture plays a critical role in the economy of the state and livelihood of majority of its populace. 
2. Land and Climate
Land use.
The State has cultivated area of 61.80 lakh ha  out of which 29.14 lakh ha. is high land, 17.55 lakh ha medium land and 15.11 lakh ha  low land. The coverage under Paddy during Kharif is about 41.24 lakh & during Rabi 3.31 lakh ha .The land use pattern of the State is indicated below. 
Year 2008-09
 (Area in lakh hectares)

Sl.No. Items Area
1. Forest 58.13
2. Miscellaneous Trees & Groves 3.42
3. Permanent Pasture 4.94
4. Culturable waste 3.75
5. Land Put to Non-Agriculture 12.98
6. Barren & un-culturable land 8.40
7. Current fallow 5.76
8. Other fallow 2.29
9. Net Area Sown 56.04
Total Geographical Area 155.71
Gross cropped area 90.71
Cropping Intensity (%) 162

(Area in lakh hectares)

  Cultivated Area Kharif Paddy Area
1. High 29.14 10.43
2. Medium 17.55 15.99
3. Low 15.11 14.82
Total:   61.80 41.24

Soil and Topography
The State is broadly divided in to 4 Physiographic zones namely, Coastal Plains, Central Tableland, Northern Plateau and Eastern Ghats. These are further subdivided into 10 agroclimatic zones, viz., North-western plateau, North-central Plateau, North-Eastern coastal plain, East and South-Eastern costal plain, North-Eastern Ghat, Eastern Ghat high land, South-Eastern Ghat, Western undulating zone, Western-Central table land and Mid-Central table land. Soil types range from fertile alluvial deltaic soils in coastal plains, mixed red and black soils in Central tableland, red and yellow soils with low fertility in Northern Plateau to red, black & brown forest soils in Eastern Ghat region. They differ widely from highly acidic to slightly alkaline and from light sandy to stiff clays. Soils are mainly acidic with the degree of acidity varying widely. Further, about 4 lakh ha is exposed to saline inundation, 3.54 lakh ha  to flooding and 0.75 lakh ha  to waterlogging, particularly in the deltaic areas.
Climate & Rainfall
States climate is tropical, characterised by high temperature, high humidity, medium to high rainfall and short and mild winters. The normal rainfall of the State is 1451.2 mm. The month wise normal rainfall is indicated below.

Month Normal Rainfall (mm)
January 11.4
February 22.9
March 25.5
April 33.1
May 63.3
June 216.5
July 339.9
August 356.0
September 231.9
October 114.7
November  31.5
December  4.5
State Average 1451.2

The actual rainfall received, vary from district to district. About 84% of rainfall is received during the period from June to September. Even though the quantum of rainfall is quite high, its distribution during the monsoon period is highly uneven and erratic. Flood, drought and cyclone visit regularly with varying intensity. Due to frequent occurrence of these natural calamities there is always reduction in the yield of Kharif rice, the major crop of the State. Similarly, in drought years, there is considerable loss in production of Pulses and Oilseeds both during Kharif and Rabi. The following table indicates the frequency of natural calamities over the years.

Sl.No. Year Normal Rainfall mms Actual rainfall mms Kharif Rice Production ( in lakh Mts.) Remarks
1 2 3 4 5 6
1. 1961 1502.5 1262.8 36.99  
2. 1962 1502.5 1169.9 36.32  
3. 1963 1502.5 1467.0 42.47  
4. 1964 1502.5 1414.1 43.59  
5. 1965 1502.5 997.1 31.89 Severe drought
6. 1966 1502.5 1134.9 35.37 Drought
7. 1967 1502.5 1326.7 34.43 Cyclone & Flood
8. 1968 1502.5 1296.1 38.48 Cyclone & Flood
9. 1969 1502.5 1802.1 38.39 Flood
10 1970 1502.5 1660.2 39.13 Flood
11. 1971 1502.5 1791.5 33.76 Flood, Severe Cyclone
12. 1972 1502.5 1177.1 37.35 Drought, flood
13. 1973 1502.5 1360.1 41.91 Flood
14. 1974 1502.5 951.2 29.67 Flood, severe drought
15. 1975 1502.5 1325.6 42.74 Flood
16. 1976 1502.5 1012.5 29.58 Severe drought
17. 1977 1502.5 1326.9 40.50 Flood
18. 1978 1502.5 1261.3 41.89 Tornados, hail storm
19. 1979 1502.5 950.7 27.34 Severe drought
20. 1980 1502.5 1321.7 40.31 Flood, drought
21. 1981 1502.5 1187.4 36.63 Flood, drought, Tornado
22. 1982 1502.5 1179.9 27.07 High flood, drought, cyclone
23. 1983 1502.5 1374.1 47.63  
24. 1984 1502.5 1302.8 38.50 Drought
25. 1985 1502.5 1606.8 48.80 Flood
26. 1986 1502.5 1566.1 44.56  
27. 1987 1502.5 1040.8 31.03 Severe drought
28. 1988 1502.5 1270.5 48.96  
29. 1989 1502.5 1283.9 58.40  
30. 1990 1502.5 1865.8 48.42 Flood
31. 1991 1502.5 1465.7 60.30  
32. 1992 1502.5 1344.1 49.76 Flood, drought
33. 1993 1502.5 1421.6 61.02  
34. 1994 1502.5 1700.2 58.31  
35. 1995 1502.5 1588.0 56.48  
36. 1996 1502.5 990.1 38.27 Severe drought
37. 1997 1502.5 1493.0 57.51  
38. 1998 1502.5 1277.5 48.85 Severe drought
39. 1999 1502.5 1435.7 42.75 Severe Cyclone
40. 2000 1502.5 1035.1 41.72 Drought & Flood
41. 2001 1482.2 1616.2 65.71 Flood
42. 2002 1482.2 1007.8 28.26 Severe drought
43. 2003 1482.2 1663.5 61.99 Flood
44. 2004 1482.2 1256.7 58.84 Moisture stress
45. 2005 1451.2 1497.7 62.49 Moisture stress
46. 2006 1451.2 1682.8 61.96 Moisture stress/Flood
47. 2007 1451.2 1583.2 68.26 Flood
48. 2008 1451.2 1525.5 60.92 Flood , Moisture Stress
 
3. Population
The population of Orissa has started registering a declining growth rate, as can be seen from the figures given below. 
(Figures in crores)

    CENSUS  
1971 1981 1991 2001
Population 2.19 2.64 3.17 3.68
Rural 2.01 2.33 2.75 3.13
Urban 0.18 0.31 0.42 0.55
Agril. Workers 0.53 0.64 0.76 0.55
Cultivators 0.34 0.40 0.46 0.34
Agril. Labourers 0.19 0.24 0.30 0.21
% of Rural population 91.6 88.3 86.6 85.0
Decennial population growth rate. 25.1 20.2 20.1 16.25

Poverty Line
The figures relating to the people below the poverty line in Orissa is indicated
below.
% of people below poverty line

Year   Orissa   India
Rural Urban Total
1973-74 67.28 55.62 66.18 54.88
1977-78 72.38 50.92 70.07 51.32
1983-84 67.53 49.15 65.29 44.48
1987-88 57.64 41.53 55.58 38.36
1993-94 49.72 41.64 48.56 35.97
1999-00 48.01 42.83 47.15 26.10
 
4. Land holding
The per capita availability of cultivated land was 0.39 hectares in 1950-51, which has declined to 0.13 hectares in 2007-08. During 2000-01 there were 40.67 lakh operational holdings in the state out of which marginal and small holdings account for
83.8 %, medium 15.9% and large, less than 1%. The average size of holding is only
1.25 ha. The size of operational holdings along with wide spread poverty pose a big problem in agricultural growth of the State. The details are given below. :-

Category of farmers No of Holdings(Lakh nos.) Area (lakh ha.) Percentage to Total
Marginal (< 1.0 ha.) 22.95 11.55 23
Small (1 – 2 ha.) 11.14 15.44 30
Semi-medium (2– 4 ha.) 5.00 13.44 27
Medium (4 – 10 ha.) 1.45 8.17 16
Large (> 10 ha.) 0.13 2.21 4
Total 40.67 50.81  

In the present agricultural scenario, the marginal farmers, constituting more than 50 % of the farmers, either own or rent a piece of land for cultivation. Because of the endemic poverty, they generally cultivate their crops with little inputs and hence crop production is low. In this backdrop, besides enhancing their capacity, increase in productivity per unit land area and cropping intensity hold the key to agricultural development
5. Irrigation
Out of the cultivated area of 61.80 lakh ha., about 34% is under irrigated conditions and 66% is under un irrigated during Kharif. The source wise irrigation potential created so far up to 2008-09 (Provisional) is indicated below.
   (Area in lakh ha.)

Sl.No. Sources Kharif Rabi
1 Major & Medium 12.86 5.64
2 Minor (Flow) 5.42 0.73
3 Minor (Lift) 4.74 2.70
4 Other Sources 5.65 5.00
  Total 28.67 14.07

The total irrigation potential created so far from all sources is about 42.74 lakh ha. (Kharif 28.67 lakh ha. & Rabi 14.07 lakh ha.). The gross irrigated cropped area is 31.77 lakh ha., which is about 74 % of the potential created. There is a constant endeavour being put in to enhance the water use efficiency through adoption of proper water management practices.
Year wise and season wise irrigation potential utilized (Lakh ha.)

Year Kharif Rabi Total
1990-91 15.13 8.01 23.14
1991-92 16.14 9.15 25.29
1992-93 15.82 8.94 24.76
1993-94 16.43 8.67 25.10
1994-95 16.27 8.41 24.68
1995-96 16.90 9.39 26.29
1996-97 15.59 7.04 22.63
1997-98 15.99 7.19 23.18
1998-99 16.50 7.08 23.58
1999-00 16.83 8.29 25.12
2000-01 15.90 5.36 21.26
2001-02 17.52 7.94 25.46
2002-03 12.47 4.65 17.12
2003-04 17.37 7.81 25.18
2004-05 18.46 8.45 26.91
2005-06 19.23 10.43 29.66
2006-07 20.02 11.47 31.49
2007-08 20.27 12.81 33.08
2008-09 20.81 10.96 31.77

Besides, private irrigation sources are being developed with funds available under the Agriculture Policy and Jalnidhi scheme. The number of shallow tube wells, bore wells, dug wells and surface lifts installed since 1996-97 till 2008-09  is indicated below.
Items Nos. installed
Shallow Tube Well 86260
Bore Well 9521
Dug well 2134
Surface lift 905
Total 98820

6. Status of Agri-Input use
(i) Seeds
The use of certified / quality seed alone can raise productivity of the crops by about 15-20%. Hence, due importance has been given in the State Agriculture Policy to increase the Seed Replacement Rate (SRR) and production of certified seeds. Quality seed multiplication is organized through the Agricultural farms of the Department, Orissa State Seeds Corporation & Registered Seed Growers. Under the seed village scheme, registered seed growers are supplied foundation seeds and the seed produced in their fields are certified by the Orissa State Seed Certification Agency. Certified seeds are also produced by the State Seeds Corporation (OSSC). The year wise seed supply position is indicated below.
(Figures in qtls.)

Year Distribution of Certified/ Quality Seeds 
Paddy  Non-Paddy Total
1 2 3 4
1973-74 17968 16060 34028
1974-75 16431 19772 36203
1975-76 49338 15144 64482
1976-77 16466 14212 30678
1977-78 18386 12208 30594
1978-79 26762 11742 38504
1979-80 26536 11987 38523
1980-81 103324 25844 129168
1981-82 48998 27982 76980
1982-83 40500 21743 62243
1983-84 51223 17177 68400
1984-85 34717 38659 73376
1985-86 34333 43297 77630
1986-87 37542 11052 48594
1987-88 65362 23493 88855
1988-89 52119 16258 68377
1989-90 48310 54460 102770
1990-91 44770 55230 100000
1991-92 76920 79290 156210
1992-93 55420 46200 101620
1993-94 49910 18860 68770
1994-95 66446 37604 104050
1995-96 113274 29426 142700
1996-97 120717 71146 191863
1997-98 199976 89210 289186
1998-99 231636 84922 316558
1999-00 230251 92627 322878
2000-01 220135 71814 291949
2001-02 254886 74874 329760
2002-03 138096 61128 199224
2003-04 145085 76881 221966
2004-05 127427 37765 165192
2005-06 160223 71664 231887
2006-07 169464 99889 269353
2007-08 291850 108309 400159
2008-09 360044 116660 476704
Popularisation of High Yielding Varieties of Paddy
Rice is the predominant crop and in order to increase productivity, supply of quality seeds of suitable varieties specific to the agro-climatic situation is inevitable. The scientists of the OUAT and CRRI are constantly in the look out for evolving such promising high yielding and hybrid varieties through breeding programmes. Some popular High Yielding Varieties of Paddy have been developed by OUAT and CRRI for upland, medium land & low land which have been listed below.
Name of the Paddy variety  
(A) For Up land
Parijat 95
Pathara 95
Khandagiri 95
Ghanteswari 95
Udaygiri 95
Dhala Heera 80-85
Jogesh 90
Sidhanta 95
Satabadi 100
Khandagiri-III 85
Vandana 95
(B) For Medium Lands
Sarathi 120
Lalat 130
Jajati 135
Birupa 135
Bhanja 140
Samanta 140
Meher 140
Konark 125
Surendra 135
Gajapati 130
Kharavela 125
MTU -1001 125-130
MTU-1010 120
RGL-2538 130
Navin 120
Tapaswini 135
Geetanjali 135

Name of the Paddy variety Duration (days)
(C )For Low Land  
Kanchan 160
Ramachandi 155
Mahanadi 150
Indravati 150
Jagabandhu 150
 CR-1014 160
Pratikhya 145
 BPT-5204 150
Ketakijoha 150
Pooja 150
Sonamani 155
 CR-1017 150
Sarala 160
Durga 160
 RGL-2537 160
 Barshadhan 160
 Upahar 160
 MTU-7029 140
 CR-1009 155
 CR-1018 160

The farmers are being motivated by the agriculture extension machinery to cultivate their land, with above suggested varieties and following recommended package of practices to harvest better yields.
(ii) Fertiliser
The fertilizer consumption in the state has taken great strides from a meager 0.76 kg/ ha during 1961-62 to 62 kg/ ha. during 2008-09. Still the consumption is much below the National average and thus can be raised to a higher level with availability of the materials in required quantities at affordable price. Fertiliser consumption of the state from 1961-62 up to 2008-09 is indicated below. 

Year Fertiliser consumption in nutrient basis in ‘000 MT Consumption in Kg./ha
  N P K Total  
1961-62 4.38 0.49 - 4.87 0.76
1971-72 37.43 8.38 4.01 49.82 7.25
1981-82 54.16 17.92 9.91 81.99 9.68
1991-92 126.22 41.52 28.29 196.03 19.96
2001-02 221.17 71.95 51.55 344.67 41.00
2002-03 185.41 62.86 42.29 290.56 39.00
2003-04 210.07 66.64 49.50 326.21 39.00
2004-05 223.54 77.99 53.77 355.31 43.00
2005-06 243.21 91.05 60.62 294.88 46.00
2006-07 256.54 92.77 53.57 402.88 47.00
2007-08 273.63 121.48 67.21 462.32 52.10
2008-09 297.77 147.93 89.17 534.87 61.50

(iii) Plant Protection
Adoption of integrated pest management (IPM), emphasizing conservation and augmentation of natural enemies of pest such as parasites, predators and pathogens for control of harmful insects and diseases of crops, is being given due thrust for increasing the crop productivity. IPM is organized by the use of pest resistant varieties, seed treatment, crop sanitation, use of bio-control agents and conservation of beneficial insects & pathogens. The nine Bio-control Laboratories in the State in addition to the one established by Govt. of India are the centers of rearing, multiplication and supply of locally adopted parasites and pathogens to the farmers. IPM demonstration-cum-training for crops like rice, maize, cotton etc are also taken up to popularize the practice of IPM under Central & Centrally Sponsored schemes. Annually around 4500 lakh bio control agents are produced covering 9500 hectares of different crops under biological control. The increased emphasis on IPM methodologies has lead to a stagnant scenario in case of pesticide consumption in the state. The consumption of technical grades of pesticides has almost slowed down a bit with 149 g a.i./ha. during 2008-09.
(Technical Grade in MT)

Year Total Pesticides consumed Total Per hectares consumption (gms of a.i.)
Chemical Bio-pesticides
2000-01 780.55 225.00 1005.55 157.00
2001-02 757.00 261.00 1018.00 159.00
2002-03 748.00 280.00 1028.00 139.00
2003-04 710.90 317.60 1028.50 138.00
2004-05 669.00 318.00 987.00 148.68
2005-06 720.00 319.00 1039.00 138.53
2006-07 812.00 343.00 1155.00 148.94
2007-08 744.25 345.00 1089.25 143.28
2008-09 810.75 345.00 1155.75 149.00

(iv) Power consumption
The power consumption for Irrigation in Agriculture is in declining trend. Minor irrigation programme cannot be successful without large-scale rural electrification. However, as per the incentives announced under Hon’ble Chief Ministers package and State Agriculture Policy, energy use in Agriculture Sector is expected to rise. The share of power consumption for Agriculture Purpose since 1992-93 is indicated below. 

Year Share of power consumption for  Agriculture Purpose
  In million units In %
1 2 3
1992-93 305.00 5.6
1993-94 341.00 5.6
1994-95 426.00 6.6
1995-96 491.00 6.5
1996-97 150.00 2.8
1997-98 201.00 3.6
1998-99 258.00 4.8




1 2 3
1999-00 217.00 3.9
2000-01 186.00 3.1
2001-02 164.00 2.8
2002-03 139.00 2.1
2003-04 124.00 1.8
2004-05 147.00 1.9
2005-06 137.00 1.7
2006-07 131.00 1.4
2007-08 132.00 1.2
2008-09 155.00 1.3

(v) Farm Mechanization
Farm mechanization has become utterly essential for timely operation of agricultural activities leading to increase in production and productivity besides reducing drudgery of labour associated with farm activities. It also enables efficient utilisation of agricultural inputs and reduces the cost of production. The Government has been encouraging the farmers to adopt improved farm machinery & equipments by providing financial assistance in form of subsidies and credit facility. Besides, the Agriculture Directorate is equipped with a proto-type Development Center (Implement Factory, Bhubaneswar) which designs, and manufactures popular implements for supply to farmers. It also indulges in training, testing and modifying the equipments as per the farmers requirement.
Because, of the awareness generation programme taken up by the Department through demonstration and farmers awareness trainings, mechanization has picked up in the State and there is a great demand for tractor, power tiller, paddy reaper, and other power driven/ self propelled equipments. Similarly, small manually operated/ bullock drawn implements are also being increasingly used by the farmers of hilly and tribal areas. The farm power input touched 0.90 KWH/ hect. by the end of 2008-09 and it has been targeted to increase 1.03 KWH/ha by the end of 11th Plan period.
         Farm Power Input (Unit: KWH/hect.)

2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 11th Plan (Target)
0.67 0.69 0.73 0.77 0.82 0.90 1.03




Number of tractors & power tiller popularised since 1992-93 to 2008-09 is indicated below.

Year Nos supplied
Tractor Power tillers
1992-93 76  
1993-94 152  
1994-95 273  
1995-96 103 76
1996-97 512 345
1997-98 774 393
1998-99 303 748
1999-00 143 783
2000-01 168 775
2001-02 102 822
2002-03 251 1242
2003-04 585 1734
2004-05 788 2125
2005-06 800 1631
2006-07 1247 2974
2007-08 705 3364
2008-09 1500 5280

(vi) Farm Credit
Since modern agriculture is capital intensive, farmer’s access to farm credit is crucial in enhancing crop productivity, especially in Orissa’s context. The field functionaries of Agriculture Directorate coordinate with the financial institutions in collecting loan applications from the farmers for providing credit to them. The crop loan disbursed to farmers is in increasing trend and needs to be greatly increased. The year wise position of crop loan disbursed is indicated below. 
(In crore Rupees)

Year Crop loan disbursed
1995-96 252.00
1996-97 275.00
1997-98 326.00
1998-99 463.00
1999-00 595.00
2000-01 611.00
2001-02 754.00
2002-03 869.00
2003-04 1107.00
2004-05 1481.00
2005-06 2111.00
2006-07 2494.00
2007-08 2665.00
2008-09 2614.00

7. Crop Insurance
Rashtriya Krishi Bima Yajana (RKBY) was introduced in the state from Rabi 1999-2000. Both Loanee & Non-loanee farmers have been covered under this scheme. It is compulsory for loanee farmers and optional for non-loanee farmers.
The crops covered under this scheme are Paddy, Maize, Groundnut, Jute, Niger, Arhar, Cotton during Kharif season & Paddy, Groundnut, Mustard, Potato, during Rabi season.
The year wise achievements made under crop insurance is given below.

Year Farmers covered     (in lakhs) Farmers paid compensation (lakh nos) Sum insured Rs.in crores Premium collected      Rs in crores Compen-sation paid Rs in crores
99-00 (Rabi) 2.32 0.17 131 2.28 0.002
2000-01          
Kharif 6.82 3.41 482 11.23 105.47
Rabi 1.24 0.26 91 1.86 1.50
2001-02          
Kharif 6.28 0.09 400 10.22 2.34
Rabi 2.13 0.18 166 3.32 1.08
2002-03          
Kharif 12.05 8.39 1066 31.69 244.03
Rabi 1.43 0.17 130 2.54 1.17
2003-04          
Kharif 6.38 0.38 540 13.82 18.18
Rabi 2.03 0.01 190 3.37 0.10
2004-05          
Kharif 8.73 0.46 898 25.49 14.69
Rabi 2.11 0.07 230 4.99 0.36
2005-06 (Kharif) Rabi 9.00 2.30 0.19 0.07 963 276 24 6 3.74 2.21
2006-07          
Kharif 6.80 0.68 1071 27.50 27.48
Rabi 2.00 0.13 269 5.26 0.46
2007-08          
Kharif 8.41 0.66 1118 28.24 24.02
Rabi 1.32 NA 200 3.81 NA
2008-09          
Kharif 6.11 0.56 841 21.77 30.35
Rabi 1.62 0.44 252 4.98 8.37

During Kharif 2008, Pilot Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS) was implemented in 8 blocks of 3 districts of the State namely Nuapada, Bolangir and Baragarh for Non-Loanee farmers on optional basis for paddy crop. Similarly during Kharif 2009 WBCIS is being implemented in 19 blocks of the above 3 districts.
8. The Developmental Approach
Agriculture is the main stay of State’s economy & providing livelihood support to a large section of population. Thus, development in agriculture holds the key to socioeconomic development of the state. With a view to attain self sufficiency in food grain production through various Government sponsored developmental programmes; fields of infrastructure, technology intervention and capacity building etc.  The Directorate of Agriculture in Orissa was established in 1945 and is constantly at its job since then. The major goals of the agriculture sector have been food safety, food security, food quality, increase in production & productivity, conservation of environment and economic stability.  
Orissa has been the pioneer state in formulating a historical Agriculture Policy in the year 1996 conferring the status of Industry to the Agriculture. In the realm of changing global scenario, especially in the post-WTO regime, it was increasingly felt for bringing in an quantum change in the agriculture policy. The State Government have brought into force the State New Agriculture Policy in 2008 for the development of Agriculture Sector. The main objectives of the policy are -
¾   To bring in a shift from the present level of subsistence agriculture to a profitable commercial agriculture so that people would accept agriculture as a vocation;
¾   To promote sustainable agricultural development; 
¾   To enhance productivity of important crops at least to match with national average (enhancing seed replacement, availability of quality planting materials, INM, IPM, water management, farm mechanization and technology transfer) ;
¾   To encourage crop diversification particularly in uplands and medium lands (e.g. paddy to non-paddy crops);
¾   To focus on horticultural crops including dry-land horticulture;
¾   To encourage modern farming system approach;
¾To enhance water use efficiency through peoples’ participation; ¾To facilitate increased long term investment in agricultural sectors (on farm as well as off farm) both by private sector, public sector and private & public partnership (PPP), particularly for post harvest management, marketing, agro processing and value addition, etc; ¾To encourage contract as well as compact farming;
¾   To increase access to credit for small and marginal farmers;
¾   To facilitate appropriate market linkages for agricultural produces with respect to which the state has competitive advantages;
¾   To implement integrated watershed development programmes in watershed areas for Natural Resource Management (NRM), increased crop production as well as on-farm and non-farm income;
¾   To create appropriate institutions / facilities to undertake regulatory, enforcement and quality assurance activities matching to the emergent needs.
¾   To redefine the roles and responsibilities of the agricultural extension machinery by suitably restructuring the field extension set up.
Implementation of different Schemes
The Department of Agriculture is always in search of new interventions/ innovations, such as; introduction of new varieties of HYV / Hybrid seeds, increase in seed replacement ratio, fertilizer consumption, Integrated Nurient Management, Integrated Pest Management, Farm Mechanisation, Water management, post harvest management of agri-produce etc for maximization of production and productivity of different crops there by enhance farm income through implementation of different schemes Under State Plan, Central Plan and Centrally Sponsored Plan. Some of them are listed below –
A. State Plan Schemes
  1. (1)       RIDF-Jalanidhi
  2. (2)       Strengthening / Infrastructure Development for Trg. Res.Centres, Labs, Impl. Factory etc. 
  3. (3)       Management of Acid Soils
  4. (4)       Input Subsidy
  5. (5)       Popularisation of Agriculture Implements
  6. (6)       Refresher Training for Extn. Functionaries
  7. (7)       New Agriculture Policy
  8. (8)       Promotion of System of Rice Intensification.
  9. B. Centrally Sponsored Plan Schemes 
    1. (1)       Work Plan (Macro management Mode)
    2. -           Rice Development
    3. -           Ragi Development
    4. -           Sugarcane Development
    5. -           Farm Mechanisation
  10. (2)       Intensive Cotton Development Programme (ICDP).
  11. (3)       Jute Technology Mission Mini Misson -II
  12. (4)       ISOPOM (Integrated schemes of Oilseed, Pulse, Maize & Oil Palm)
  13. (5)       Support to State Extension for Extension Reforms (ATMA).
  14. (6)       National Project on Management of Soil Health & Fertility (NPMSHF).
    1. (7)       National Food Security Mission (NFSM)
    2. - NFSM (Rice)
    3. -NFSM (Pulses)
  15. (8)       Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana.
  16. C. Central Plan Schemes
  17. (1)       Promotion & Strengthening of Agriculture mechanization through training, testing and demonstration.
  18. (2)       Support to State extension programme for extension reforms – AGRISNET.
  19. (3)       National project on promotion of organic farming
  20. (4)       Development & strengthening of Infrastructure for Production and Distribution of Quality Seeds.
  21. (5)        Agril.-clinic/ Agril. business centres.
  22. (6)       Strengthening & Modernisation  of Pest Management .
These schemes are implemented through the departmental field functionaries posted at grass root level and at the higher level in coordination with the Panchayati Raj Institutions.
9.Crop coverage & crop production
(a)        Food grains
Food grains consist of cereals and pulses. Rice, maize, ragi, wheat, jowar, bajra & small millets crops grown in the State come under cereals and arhar, mung, biri, kulthi, cowpea, fieldpea, gram, lentil crops under Pulses. The crops of wheat, bajra, jowar, small millets are grown to lesser extent. Mung, biri and kulthi crops are mostly grown during Rabi season in the rice fallows with residual moisture. If there is a good rainfall during last part of October, the coverage under pulse crops & production are higher. The area, production & yield rate of food grains since 1950-51 till date is indicated below.

Year Area ( in lakh ha.) Production (in lakh MT) Productivity (kgs./ ha.)
  Cereals Pulses Total Cereals Pulses Total Cereals Pulses Total
1950-51 40 4 44 21 2 24 510 520 546
1960-61 40 5 45 38 2 40 943 443 906
1970-71 49 8 57 44 5 49 898 552 847
1980-81 52 17 69 51 9 60 982 514 865
1990-91 50 21 71 59 11 70 1181 551 992
1998-99 49 16 65 58 6 64 1180 391 989
1999-00 51 16 67 56 7 63 1108 403 937
2000-01 49 14 63 50 5 55 1032 365 884
2001-02 49 17 66 75 7 82 1526 400 1232
2002-03 47 13 60 36 4 40 767 349 675
2003-04 49 16 65 71 6 77 1444 379 1178
2004-05 49 17 66 70 6 76 1414 378 1154
2005-06 49 19 68 74 8 82 1513 422 1211
2006-07 49 19 68 74 9 83 1520 444 1213
2007-08 49 20 69 83 9 92 1702 458 1344
2008-09 49 20 69 76 10 86 1556 497 1249

In the year when there are no natural calamities the food grain production is increased. However the food grain production scenario in the backdrop of projected demand have been as under.
Year wise Surplus/Deficit of Foodgrain Production & Consumption:

Year Projected population (in lakhs) Adult population 88% (in lakhs) Total Requirement  (in MTs.) Total Production (in MTs.) Surplus / Deficit  (in MTs.)
1998-99 350.85 308.75 73.54 63.78 - 9.76
1999-00 357.91 314.96 75.02 62.65 - 12.37
2000-01 365.10 321.28 76.53 55.35 - 21.18
2001-02 371.03 326.51 77.77 82.33 4.56
2002-03 377.06 331.81 79.04 40.44 - 38.60
2003-04 383.19 337.21 80.32 77.37 - 2.95
2004-05 389.41 342.68 81.62 75.89 - 5.73
2005-06 395.74 348.25 82.95 82.21 - 0.74
2006-07 402.16 353.90 84.29 82.98 - 1.31
2007-08 408.70 359.66 85.67 92.54 6.87
2008-09 415.34 365.50 87.05 86.34 - 0.71



Rice
Rice is the principal food crop in the state occupying about 44.55 lakh ha annually (41.24 lakh ha. during Kharif season + 3.31 lakh ha. during Rabi season). The Kharif Paddy area consists of 10.43 lakh ha  of high land 15.99 lakh ha of medium land and 14.82 lakh ha of low land. The entire Rabi area is irrigated & covered by HY Paddy where as 36% of Kharif Paddy area is covered under irrigation. The rice production reached the record level of 76.55 lakh tones during 2007-08 and at present is 69.16 lakh tones (during 2008). The yield rate of rice is 1.6 tonnes/ ha as against national average of 2.2 tonnes / ha . The year wise position is indicated below. 

Year Area ( in lakh ha.) Production (in lakh MTs) Productivity (kgs./ ha.)
  Kharif Rabi Total Kharif Rabi Total Kharif Rabi Total
1950-51 38.5 0.1 38.6 20.0 0.1 20.1 520 600 520
1960-61 37.7 0.3 38.0 37.2 0.2 37.4 988 697 986
1970-71 43.3 1.4 44.7 39.1 1.9 41.0 902 1387 917
1980-81 40.2 1.7 41.9 40.3 2.7 43.0 1003 1571 1026
1990-91 41.9 2.1 44.0 48.4 4.3 52.7 1156 2019 1198
1998-99 41.8 2.7 44.5 48.9 5.0 53.9 1169 1889 1212
1999-00 42.2 3.8 46.0 42.8 9.1 51.9 1013 2389 1127
2000-01 42.3 2.0 44.3 41.7 4.4 46.1 987 2136 1041
2001-02 42.3 2.7 45.0 65.7 5.8 71.5 1554 2127 1589
2002-03 40.9 1.8 42.7 28.2 4.2 32.4 690 2352 759
2003-04 42.5 2.5 45.0 62.0 5.3 67.3 1459 2112 1496
2004-05 42.0 2.9 44.9 58.8 6.5 65.3 1401 2230 1455
2005-06 41.54 3.25 44.79 62.49 7.14 69.63 1504 2193 1554
2006-07 41.36 3.14 44.50 61.96 7.32 69.28 1498 2328 1557
2007-08 41.18 3.34 44.52 68.26 8.29 76.55 1658 2484 1720
2008-09 41.24 3.31 44.55 60.92 8.24 69.16 1477 2488 1553

The scope for increasing Rabi rice area is very limited as it depends upon irrigation. The problems faced in increasing Kharif rice productivity and the steps taken to overcome them are as follows.
i)          More & more Kharif rice area is being brought under irrigation.
ii)Kharif rice is grown in all types of land, even on sub-marginal lands, with the hope of getting some yield if the rainfall is normal. Due to weak economic condition, Programme “Work Plan - Rice Development” is in operation in the State since 2001-02. Under this scheme Farmers Field School, exposure visit of farmers (out side and inside state), supply of certified seeds, farm implements, power tillers, tractors at a subsidized rates etc. are being taken up. Besides, from 2007-08 such developmental activities for enhancement of rice production and productivity is being taken up under the National Food Security Mission - Rice in 15 low productivity districts in a mission mode.


especially the tribal farmers in hilly areas, they cultivate rice with least/ no agri-inputs and obtain low yield as a result, particularly from high lands. In these areas, growing short duration paddy varieties of 70-90 days and mixed cropping are being advocated as an insurance against crop failure. Steps are being taken to divert 2 lakh ha. of paddy land especially high land paddy area to more remunerative crops like cereals, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables, spices, fruit trees, fibres, flowers etc.
iii) A good number of High Yielding varieties have come up for high & medium land, choice for low, water logged and saline inunadated lands is limited. Late varieties like Panidhan, Tulasi, Kanchan, Rambha, Lunisree have been developed by CRRI & OUAT for these lands.
iv) Pest built-up due to continuous cloudy weather in Kharif season & loss of nutrients due to leaching have become serious risks, the poor farmer of the state can hardly afford. Besides their resource pureness is one of the reasons for low fertilizer consumption.
v) The operational units are small & fragmented. Small, marginal & tribal farmers are economically too weak to adopt new technology. Since the situation is changing, a large number of farmers are being brought into the fold of institutional finance. 
  To increase production and productivity of Rice a Centrally Sponsored

Other cereals
Maize & Ragi are the important coarse cereals. Jowar, Bajra & Small millets are also grown in the state to a lesser extent. These crops are mostly grown in tribal districts during Kharif in un-irrigated uplands with poor management practices and more as subsistence crop. The Area, Production & Yield rate of Ragi & Maize during last few years are given below.
A= Area in lakh hects    P= Production in lakh MTs  Y= Yield rate in Kgs/hect

Year   Ragi   Maize
A P Y A P Y
1950-51 1.21 0.28 235 0.23 0.09 390
1960-61 0.67 0.29 431 0.22 0.09 417
1970-71 1.56 1.41 901 0.72 0.59 821
1980-81 3.36 2.65 786 1.81 1.75 964
1990-91 2.48 2.54 1023 1.67 2.07 1238
1998-99 1.98 1.44 725 1.64 1.83 1117
1999-00 2.09 1.54 735 1.74 2.17 1248
2000-01 1.89 1.52 801 1.76 2.17 1235
2001-02 1.96 1.45 738 1.64 1.85 1128
2002-03 1.87 1.27 783 1.58 1.77 1123
2003-04 1.90 1.40 737 1.75 1.96 1116
2004-05 1.94 1.42 731 1.85 2.44 1322
2005-06 1.90 1.42 747 1.87 2.80 1496
2006-07 1.90 1.44 760 1.99 3.19 1602
2007-08 1.87 1.65 883 2.15 4.82 2245
2008-09 1.83 1.64 896 2.24 5.14 2291

The area under Ragi crop is showing a declining trend due to diversion of traditionally ragi growing areas to cotton, maize vegetables & pulses. So, improved & high yielding varieties of Ragi have been introduced in the state and Ragi development is being promoted though incorporating the scheme under work plan for enhancing the production & productivity.
Similarly in Maize crop, to increase the production and productivity a centrally sponsored scheme known as ISOPOM (Maize) is in operation in the state since 2004
05. Under the scheme interventions like minikit demonstration, IPM demonstration, block demonstration farmers training etc are being taken up besides supply of certified seeds, PP equipments, HDPE pipes and farm implements at subsidized rates.
Pulses
Arhar, mung, biri, kulthi, gram, fieldpea, cowpea, lentil are the pulse crops grown in the State. The major crops are arhar, mung, biri and kulthi. Pulses are grown mainly in uplands during Kharif season predominantly in inland districts & in rice fallows during Rabi season, mostly in coastal districts under available moisture condition. Mung & biri are also grown as third crop in summer under irrigated condition. Post monsoon rains, mostly govern the Rabi coverage of pulses in rice fallows. The area, production & productivity of pulses crops of last few years is indicated below.

Year Area ( in lakh ha.) Production (in lakh MT) Productivity (kgs./ ha.)
Kharif Rabi Total Kharif Rabi Total Kharif Rabi Total
1970-71 1.7 6.7 8.4 1.0 3.6 4.6 600 542 552
1980-81 3.2 14.1 17.3 1.6 7.3 8.9 490 520 514
1990-91 6.7 14.6 21.3 4.1 7.6 11.7 614 523 551
1998-99 5.0 10.6 15.6 2.0 4.1 6.1 399 387 391
1999-00 5.1 11.2 16.3 2.2 4.3 6.5 437 387 403
2000-01 5.4 8.5 13.9 2.3 2.8 5.1 426 326 365
2001-02 5.5 11.9 17.4 2.4 4.5 6.9 444 379 400
2002-03 4.6 8.5 13.1 1.6 3.0 4.6 356 345 349
2003-04 6.1 10.3 16.4 2.5 3.7 6.2 406 363 379
2004-05 5.9 10.6 16.5 2.4 3.8 6.2 408 362 378
2005-06 6.9 11.9 18.8 2.9 5.0 7.9 429 419 422
2006-07 7.1 12.4 19.5 3.4 5.2 8.6 482 422 444
2007-08 7.2 12.6 19.8 3.6 5.5 9.1 507 431 458
2008-09 7.4 12.6 20.0 3.9 6.0 9.9 527 479 497

Area, production and productivity figures show an increasing trend from 2002-03 onwards, with the exception of the all time high achieved during 90-91. The reason for low productivity of pulses is untimely rains and unfavorable weather conditions. The other reason for low productivity is non-availability of suitable high yielding varieties of mung & biri grown in rice fallows in pre-Rabi & Rabi seasons. Besides, they are grown under poor management practices. Pulse crops are comparatively less remunerative when grown without fertilizer broadcasted under residual moisture. Further, the area under pulses is encroached by high value crops like vegetables. Thus, attempts are being made to bring more area under pulses crops through adoption of mixed cropping, crop rotation, Paddy bund plantation and introducing appropriate varieties suitable for cultivation in the State.
National Pulses Development Programme now ISOPOM (Pulses), a Centrally Sponsored Scheme, is in operation in the State since 1990-96 with objectives of expanding the area & increasing the productivity by incentivizing farmers through provision of subsidy for different seed & non seed components. Some of its important components are production of foundation seeds, production of certified seeds through seed village scheme, distribution of certified seeds, minikits, bio-fertilisers, farm Implements, sprinkler sets, P.P.equipments, P.P.Chemicals, NPV at subsidized rates, organizing farmers training and block demonstrations etc.
(b) Oilseeds Groundnut, sesamum, castor, mustard, niger, sunflower, safflower, soybean, linseed are the Oilseed crops grown in the State. Of these, groundnut, sesamum, mustard and niger are the major ones. Now, sunflower is gaining popularity in the state. These crops are grown in upland during Kharif season and in riverbeds & rice fallows during Rabi season. The area, production and productivity during past few years are indicated below

'
Year Area ( in lakh hects) Production (in lakh MTs) Productivity (kgs./ hects)
Kharif Rabi Total Kharif Rabi Total Kharif Rabi Total
1970-71 1.3 2.0 3.3 1.0 1.2 2.2 788 567 652
1980-81 2.0 5.3 7.3 1.5 3.4 4.9 712 637 658
1990-91 5.5 6.0 11.5 4.2 5.3 9.5 766 871 821
1998-99 4.7 3.9 8.6 2.3 2.2 4.5 487 570 525
1999-00 4.3 4.2 8.5 2.1 3.6 5.7 490 853 668
2000-01 3.8 3.2 7.0 1.7 2.0 3.7 436 642 531
2001-02 4.2 4.2 8.4 1.9 3.5 5.4 444 826 635
2002-03 2.8 3.0 5.8 1.1 2.1 3.2 392 697 550
2003-04 4.0 3.9 7.9 1.6 3.3 4.9 408 851 626
2004-05 4.5 3.9 8.4 1.9 3.3 5.2 431 854 627
2005-06 4.5 3.7 8.2 2.1 3.4 5.5 471 908 668
2006-07 4.4 4.0 8.4 2.1 3.9 6.0 490 972 719
2007-08 4.3 4.1 8.4 2.6 4.2 6.8 597 1019 804
2008-09 4.2 4.1 8.3 2.7 4.3 7.0 661 1038 848

Coverage under oilseeds has been fairly constant hovering around 8.5 Lakh ha. But the fluctuating trend in production and productivity has largely settled down to an increasing trend 2002-03 onwards, in spite of aberrant weather conditions taking its toll. 
Besides inadequate use of chemical fertilizer, problems in marketing, lack of avenues for value addition and non-remunerative prices in the offing for oilseeds like groundnut, sunflower and niger, do dishearten farmers to some extent.
Efforts are being made to increase the productivity through compact area and location specific approach by providing minikits, conducting demonstrations, supply of seed treating chemicals, rhizobium culture, gypsum, micronutrients, farm implements, sprinkler sets at subsidised costs to boost growers’ morale.
(c) Jute & Mesta
Among the fiber crops Jute & mesta are the most important crops. Jute is mainly cultivated in the coastal districts of Balasore, Cuttack & Anandpur subdivision of Keonjhar. Mesta is mostly grown in the districts of Ganjam, Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar & Koraput. The area, production & yield rate of jute and mesta are given below. 
   Area in ‘000 hects
  Production in ‘000 bales
Yield in Kgs/hect

Year Jute Mesta
Area Production Yield Area Production Yield
1960-61 40 264 1180 8 40 889
1970-71 44 328 1348 28 152 959
1980-81 44 310 1275 42 209 897
1990-91 36 472 2372 34 223 1189
1998-99 13 110 1485 29 110 693
1999-00 14 92 1189 30 129 768
2000-01 14 107 1386 24 103 773
2001-02 14 92 1199 26 109 746
2002-03 14 85 1115 25 97 688
2003-04 9 53 1064 27 109 738
2004-05 9 83 1620 25 105 751
2005-06 10 91 1665 23 97 761
2006-07 12 115 1741 22 95 783
2007-08 13 126 1769 22 101 826
2008-09 11 105 1799 20 95 847

The area under jute & mesta is shrinking fast, mainly due to invasion of polythene & synthetic fibers as a cheaper & convenient substitute in addition to the inadequate marketing support. Besides, the crops being grown rainfed suffer on account of erratic monsoon. Jute Development was being taken up under work plan, a Centrally Sponsored Programme in the state since 2001-02 and being followed up under the Jute

Technology Mission from 2008-09 for improving production, productivity and the quality of fiber in the jute and mesta growing districts. Emphasis is being laid on supply of certified jute & mesta seeds, timely distribution of critical inputs, demonstration on improved production technologies, organization of farmers field school, exposure visit of farmers (both in side & out side state), retting technology demonstration for improving the quality of the fiber etc. Owing to the rise in public awareness on environmental concerns the jute & mesta crop is gaining its ground both in area & production terms.
(d) Cotton
Cotton is mostly grown in KBK districts (un divided Koraput, Kalahandi, Bolangir) and Ganjam. This crop is gaining more importance in the State. The year wise position is indicated below. 

Year Area (‘000 hects) Production (‘000 bales) Yield (Lint) (in kgs/hects)
1950-51 10 2 33
1960-61 8 2 51
1970-71 0.3 0.5 295
1980-81 4 4 170
1990-91 6 8 215
1998-99 29 53 306
1999-00 38 61 272
2000-01 39 65 283
2001-02 63 55 147
2002-03 29 50 287
2003-04 37 88 408
2004-05 46 111 412
2005-06 57 145 435
2006-07 60 108 307
2007-08 50 125 423
2008-09 58 147 430

The present aim is to raise the area under cotton to 75,000 ha. by substituting the crop in high land where non-remunerative non-paddy & paddy crops are grown.
A Centrally Sponsored Scheme “Intensive Cotton Development Programme (ICDP)” is in operation for increasing production & productivity of cotton through providing seed subsidy, organizing demonstration, training and extending assistance to farmers for procuring P.P. Equipments,  sprinkler sets, PP chemicals etc at subsidized rates.
Steps are being taken to make available quality hybrid & high yielding seeds to cotton growers in the state and providing those seeds locally. Besides, technical assistance for raising the crop is being rendered through the extension personnel of the department.
(e) Sugarcane
Sugarcane is mostly cultivated in undivided districts of Puri, Cuttack, Ganjam, Koraput, Dhenkanal, Bolangir, Kalahandi & Sambalpur districts. The year wise Area, Production & Productivity is indicated below.

Year Area (‘000 hects) Production (‘000 MTs) Yield (in kgs/hects)
1950-51 25 1107 44284
1960-61 25 744 29179
1970-71 30 1627 53907
1980-81 49 3060 62449
1990-91 49 3549 72429
1998-99 47 3060 64917
1999-00 31 1827 58990
2000-01 31 2103 66951
2001-02 30 1890 63728
2002-03 25 1516 60150
2003-04 29 1810 62908
2004-05 34 2321 68600
2005-06 37 2543 69286
2006-07 41 2836 70008
2007-08 38 2679 70360
2008-09 (Prov.) 38 2675 70500


There are seven sugar mills in the state, out of which 6 mills are in operation & one at Kalahandi is not functioning for which area and production of sugarcane crop has registered a decline during 2007-08 & 2008-09.

Steps are being taken to revive the above sugarcane mill. Besides this, to improve the productivity, steps are also being taken to provide quality seed materials, conduct farmer field schools, for up gradation of technical skill of farmers, supply of agricultural implements at subsidized rates and demonstration for ratoon management under centrally sponsored plan scheme Sugarcane Development (Work Plan).

10. Seed Replacement Rate
The Seed Replacement Rate (SRR) of different crops from 2005-06 to 2008-09 is indicated below.
    ( SRR in %)



Name of the crop
2005-06 2006-07
Kharif Rabi Total Kharif Rabi Total
Paddy 5.81 7.87 5.96 5.87 14.16 6.35
Maize 1.02 0.11 1.15 1.15 4.90 1.39
Wheat 20.66     20.66 20.66
Moong 0.79 0.94 2.77 2.77 1.89 2.15
Urd 0.94 0.34 0.61 0.61 3.76 2.42
Gram 21.53     13.05 13.05
Arhar 1.40   2.68 2.68 5.29 2.68
F.Pea 5.60     8.44 8.44
G.Nut 5.58 25.16 6.67 6.67 32.28 22.89
Mustard 13.23     14.45 14.45
Sunflower 100.00 22.44 33.34 100.00 49.87 60.71
Castor 2.96 0.00 1.90 10.99   5.74
Jute 40.70   40.70 42.86   42.86
Cotton 16.72 16.72 3.85   3.85

  ( SRR in %)

Name of the crop 2007-08 2008-09
Kharif Rabi Total Kharif Rabi Total
Paddy 11.25 21.83 12.04 14.13 24.84 15.05
Maize 2.01 3.00 2.05 1.76 4.04 1.89
Wheat   25.85 25.85   34.22 34.22
Moong 1.20 1.43 1.36 0.49 1.63 1.27
Urd 1.07 1.98 1.57 1.34 7.05 4.40
Gram   20.46 20.46   21.53 21.53
Arhar 1.98 1.98 2.40   2.40
F.Pea   3.10 3.10   7.59 7.59
G.Nut 7.57 29.89 22.19 7.41 32.20 23.53
Mustard   12.20 12.20 - 18.13 18.13
Sunflower 100.00 10.83 19.09 83.33 13.02 15.86
Castor 14.90   7.37 - - -
Jute 46.47   46.47 45.84 - 45.84
Cotton 1.75   1.75 0.60 - 0.60

11. Minimum Support Price
The minimum support price of different Agricultural Products for the year from 2005-06 to 2009-10 fixed by Govt. of India on the recommendation of Commission for Agriculture Costs and Prices (CACP) for all the States is indicated below.
 (Rs. Per Qtls for FAQ)


Sl. No Commodity  Variety 2005-06  2006-07  2007-08  2008-09  2009-10
KHARIF CROPS            
1 PADDY Common   570 580^ 645$$ 850$$$ 950
Grade 'A' 600 610^ 675$$ 880$$$ 980
2 JOWAR Hybrid 525 540 600 840 840
Maldandi - 555 620 860 860
3 BAJRA   525 540 600 840 840
4 MAIZE   540 540 620 840 840
5 RAGI   525 540 600 915 915
6 ARHAR(Tur)    1400 1410 1550^^ 2000 2300
7 MOONG   1520 1520 1700^^ 2520 2760
8 URAD   1520 1520 1700^^ 2520 2520
9 COTTON F-414/H-777/J34 1760 1770* 1800* 2500a  2500a
H-4 1980 1990** 2030** 3000aa 3000aa
10 GROUNDNUT IN SHELL   1520 1520 1550 2100 2100
11 SUNFLOWER SEED   1500 1500 1510 2215 2215
12 SOYABEEN BLACK 900 900 910 1350 1350
YELLOW 1010 1020 1050 1390 1390
13 SESAMUM   1550 1560 1580 2750 2850
14 NIGERSEED   1200 1220 1240 2405 2405
RABI CROPS            
15 WHEAT   650$ 750$$ 1000 1080 1100
16 BARLEY   550 565 650 680 750
17 GRAM   1435 1445 1600 1730 1760
18 MASUR (LENTIL)   1535 1545 1700 1870 1870
19 RAPESEED/MUSTARD    1715 1715 1800 1830 1830
20 SAFFLOWER   1565 1565 1650 1650 1680
21 TORIA   1680 1680 1735    
OTHER CROPS            
22 COPRA Milling 3570 3590 3620 3660  
  (Calender Year) Ball 3820 3840 3870 3910  
23 JUTE (Tosha) (White)   910 1000 1092 1042 1287 1237 1412 1362
24 SUGARCANE    79.50 80.25 81.18 81.18 129.84 (F&RP)
25 TOBACCO(VFC) Black Soil(F2 Gr) 32.00 32.00 32.00    
  (Rs. per kg.) Light Soil (L2 Gr) 34.00 34.00 34.00    

        Upto 2004-05 Statutory Minimum Price (SMP) linked to a basic recovery of 8.5 % with   proportionate premium for every  0.1% increase in recovery above that level. The SMP for 2002-03 includes the one time drought relief of Rs. 5 per quintal recommended by CACP. From  2005-06 onwards SMP is linked to basic recovery of 9.0%.
F&RP: Fair and Remunerative Price. $ An additional incentive bonus of Rs. 50 per quintal was payable over the Minimum Support Price(MSP). $$ An additional incentive bonus of Rs. 100 per quintal is payable over the Minimum Support Price(MSP).
    An additional incentive bonus of Rs.50 per quintal is payable over the Minimum Support Price(MSP).
        An additional incentive bonus of Rs. 40 per quintal is payable on procurement between 1.10.2006 to 31.03.2007. In case of Bihar and Kerala additional incentive bonus extended upto 31.5.2007 and in case of Andhra Pradesh, Chhatisgarh, Orissa, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal additional incentive bonus extended upto 30.9.2007.
      A bonus of Rs. 40 per quintal is payable over & above the MSP.
* Medium Staple. ** Long Staple.a Staple length (mm) 24.5 – 25.5 and Micronaire value of 4.3 – 5.1 aa Staple length (mm) 29.5 – 30.5 and Micronaire value of 3.5 – 4.3 

12.Crop Diversification & Mixed Cropping
In Orissa, Kharif Paddy is grown on all types of lands irrespective of its suitability. Paddy grown on high lands under rainfed conditions is most vulnerable to moisture stress, leading to drastic yield reduction in years of poor & erractic rainfall. It is therefore necessary to diversify this area. The extent of high land paddy in the state is about 10.43 lakh ha. It was programmed to divert 4.89 lakh ha. of this high land paddy to non- paddy crops like pulses, oilseeds, cotton and vegetables during Kharif season. The diversion is programmed mostly in the inland districts.  Since most of the small and marginal farmers who cultivate the high lands prefer to grow paddy for reasons of food security, partial substitution of paddy with alley cropping (Mixed cropping) is considered to be more appropriate measure to achieve the crop diversification. Mixed cropping of different combinations of crops is therefore being popularised. Steps are also being taken to cover some of these lands by very early and early varieties of paddy. The crop diversification programme of Orissa during 2008-09 is as follows:
In Lakh hects
Sl No Items 2008-09
1 Diversion from High land paddy 2.00
2 Drought affected Medium land paddy 1.80
3 Rice fallow land (with Pulses, Oilseeds ) 3.87
4 Minor Millet Area (Niger, Mesta) 0.16
5 Aromatic Rice 1.60
6 Rice Fish culture 0.20
7 Sand dune 0.30
8 Saline inunadated area 0.34
  Total 10.27

These crops are being encouraged by way of supplying minikits of different new varieties of certified seeds and conducting block demonstrations under different centrally sponsored scheme like ISOPOM and ICDP (Cotton). Price Support Scheme should continue to ensure marketing of oilseeds.
The Rice area diverted to non Paddy crops during 2005, 2006, 2007 & 2008 Kharif is indicated below. (unit in hects)


Sl. No Name of the Crops   Area diverted during  
    2005 2006 2007 2008
1. Cereals 16693 18188 18206 18497
2. Pulses 31698 35741 56585 57983
3. Oilseeds 15093 9105 25423 26651
4. Fibres 14282 6687 3036 3971
5. Sugarcane 12792 4244 5836 5854
6. Vegetables 19109 15005 33577 34547
7. Spices 3124 2504 2533 2928
8. Horticultural crops 4518 2816 1210 2578
  Total 1,17,309 94,290 1,46,406 153009

Mixed Cropping
The year wise mixed cropping area since 2001 to 2008 is indicated below.
Area in hect.

Sl. No Mixed Crop 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 Paddy + Arhar 29690 30529 32343 26190 28225 29048 28785 31745
2 Paddy + Mung/Biri 96 208 297 300 315 723 1811
3 Paddy + Mest 20   90 101 60 62 44 42

// 31 //

4 Paddy + Jowar     150 323 325 328 1230
5 Paddy + Maize 252 269 105 275 455 545
6 Maize + Arhar 1921 2262 2141 2205 2810 2942 1844 2184
7 Maize + Cowpea 906 1270 1172 1529 1435 1545 3040 3959
8 Maize + Bean 300 340 167 194 235 241
9 Maize + Mesta 232 73 144
10 Maize + Jowar
11 Maize + Castor 12 15 15 240
12 Maize + Cotton 7 12 22
13 Maize + Bailo 37 44 30 140 120 120
14 Maize + Biri 125 115 145 221 145 156
15 Ragi + Biri 65 55 75 140 150 160
16 Ragi + Jowar 10 5 10 50 50 52
17 Ragi + Bailo 200 213 260 230 180 182 -
18 Ragi + Arhar 2551 2614 3133 3135 3252 3343 672
19 Ragi + Cowpea 80 120 130 140 210 222 20
20 Arhar + Mesta 36 5 30
21 Arhar + Groundnut 14278 12831 13299 14770 14815 14923 13340 12943
22 Arhar + Til 190 307 345 17108
23 Arhar + Mung/ Biri 16180 17286 16031 14317 18825 19321 973 17876
24 Arhar + Ragi/Jowar 242 200 160 50 65 73 1933
25 Arhar + Jowar 25 161 24 24 1000
26 Arhar + Cotton 1502 337 570 425 355 365 807
27 Arhar + Vegetable 20 57 40 65 70
28 Arhar + Cowpea 8 16 52 60 66 104
29 Cotton + Mung/Biri 12 5 30 20 52 56 00 153
30 Cotton + Vegetable 15 110 115 00
31 Cotton + Groundnut 122 138 869
32 Groundnut + Mung/Biri  180 184 310 430 445 274 1377
33 Groundnut + Mesta-- 283 62 385 399 402 405 134
34 Sugarcane + Mung 50 20 51 52 72045
35 Others 2979 4219
  Total 69407 69554 71197 65975 73676 75327 72045 80413

13 Agroclimatic Zone Wise Districts 14. Administrative Set-up (Orissa)

Sl.No. Name of the Agro-climatic zone Name of the districts
1. North – Western Plateau Sundargarh, Deogarh
2. North Central Plateau Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar
3. North Eastern Coastal Plain Balasore, Bhadrak, Jajpur
4. East and South Eastern Coastal Plain Cuttack, Jagatsingpur, Kendrapada, Puri, Khurdha, Nayagarh
5. North Eastern Ghat Ganjam, Gajapati, Rayagada, Phulbani
6. Eastern Ghat High Land Koraput, Nowragpur
7. South Eastern Ghat Malkangiri
8. Western Undulating Zone Kalahandi, Nuapada
9. Western Central Table Land Bolangir, Sonepur, Boudh, Sambalpur, Baragarh, Jharsuguda
10. Mid Central Table Land Dhenkanal, Angul

// 32 //

Sl. No. District         No of      
    Block GP Village Sub-Division Tahasils Municipality/ Municipal Corp. NAC Assembly Constituencies
1 Balasore 12 289 2952 2 7 1 3 7
2 Bhadrak 7 193 1311 1 6 1 1 5
3 Balangir 14 285 1794 3 6 1 3 6
4 Sonepur 6 96 959 2 4 1 2 3
5 Cuttack 14 342 1950 3 11 2 2 10
6 Jagatsingpur 8 194 1288 1 4 1 1 4
7 Jajpur 10 280 1778 1 6 2   6
8 Kendrapara 9 230 1540 1 7 1 1 6
9 Dhenkanal 8 199 1215 3 6 1 2 4
10 Angul 8 209 1910 4 5 1 2 4
11 Ganjam 22 475 3212 3 14 1 17 12
12 Gajapati 7 129 1619 1 3 1 1 3
13 Kalahandi 13 273 2236 2 7 1 2 6
14 Nawapara 5 109 663 1 2   2 2
15 Keonjhar 13 286 2122 3 8 3 1 6
16 Koraput 14 226 2028 2 7 1 3 4
17 Malkangiri 7 108 1045 1 3   2 2
18 Nawarangpur 10 169 901 1 4 1 1 4
19 Rayagada 11 171 2667 2 4 1 2 4
20 Mayurbhanj 26 382 3950 4 9 1 3 10
21 Phulbani 12 153 2546 2 4   2 3
22 Boudh 3 63 1186 1 2   1 1
23 Puri 11 230 1715 1 7 1 3 6
24 Khurda 10 168 1551 2 7 3 2 6
25 Nayagarh 8 179 1695 1 4   2 4
26 Sambalpur 9 148 1322 3 4 1 4 3
27 Bargarh 12 248 1207 2 8 1 2 5
28 Deogarh 3 60 875 1 1 1   1
29 Jharsuguda 5 78 348 1 2 2 1 3
30 Sundargarh 17 262 1764 3 9 4   7
  ORISSA 314

6234

51349

58

171

35

68

147


   
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